Describe the premise of the study and the cultural implications on ethical decision-making.
What were the results of the study?
How does culture influence decision-making?
Describe the differences in ethical decision-making between 2 groups.
What is your opinion on how much culture should or does impact ethical decision-making?
title: Pressure from “Involution”: Understanding Parents’ Expectation and its Relation with Mental Health Among Chinese International Students
(1) Define “involution” and relate it to English Context: Chinese original definitions and their equivalence in the English language context (e.g., limited resource environment leading competence)
(check article: https://www.britannica.com/topic/involution-anthropological-and-economic-theory. / https://www.newyorker.com/culture/cultural-comment/chinas-involuted-generation. /https://news.cgtn.com/news/2020-12-04/-Involution-The-anxieties-of-our-time-summed-up-in-one-word-VWNlDOVdjW/index.html
(2) Comparative analysis of the sources and causes of involution——— compare them with similar phenomena among US students（e.g.， parents’ high expectations can be seen in both Chinese and American or high expectations from Asian American families)
(3) Involution: interaction of various factors， do these factors interact the same way among Chinese international students in the US and American international students who study in other countries? (this can also be used in the future directions section)
(4) How do”involution” and parents’ expectation influence mental health? (e.g., parents’ expectations on academic performance, pressure from your peer or society)
———————————————- (It’s hard to write about it and it’s an introduction for thinking)
Key Word: Involution, Parents’ Expectation, Mental Health,
The idea of involution within Social Science originally comes from anthropologist Clifford Geertz (Form & Nico, 2020) who found a process of inward over-elaboration within agricultural development, such that putting more effort and work would not lead to further growth or expansion in production. Sociologists then adopted the term “involution” to describe the phenomenon that occurred during the post-Open Door China era where young generations were competing against each other much harder than before but had neither significant breakthroughs among their living standards nor growth in per capita output since the rice economy of the Yangzi Delta (Huang, 1990; Little, 2010). Essentially younger generations were trapped in a pattern of “involutionary growth” (Huang, 1990). The Chinese term for involution is Neijuan (“内卷”), which is composed by Nei (“inside”) and juan (“rolling”) at the same time (Liu, 2021). According to Liu (2021), anthropologist Xiang Biao describes Neijuan as a process that spirals inward, entangling its participants in an “endless loop of self-flagellation”. Involution as it is referred to in the context of sociology, is defined as the sense of being locked in a competition that one eventually realizes is pointless (Liu, 2021). Furthermore, Xiang Biao states that in the 1990s, heated competition began because people were afraid of being left behind (Zhou, 2020).
China’s economy has been actively involved in the global economy since the implementation of the Open-Door Policy in the 90’s (Zou, 1996). Many Chinese entrepreneurs started their businesses and gained money from various investments through the Open-Door Policy. The economy was growing rapidly, offering citizens at the time much room to climb the socioeconomic ladder. The generation that had the first bite of the cake did not need to compete excessively as all the big cities were filled with opportunities. However, this generation was involved in the formation of involution within domains of education, career, and income. In other words, the next generation is likely to just find crumbs on the table since the big pieces are gone. Another term that often shows up with the involution among Generation Z is “996”, which means a work culture that requires employees to work from 9am to 9pm, six days a week. This working culture is popular among many Chinese internet giants that encourages employees to work as long as they can every day. The competition in the real world now becomes much more intense than before, so Chinese parents start to prepare their children to get ready to this “fight and survive” type of involutionary competition and workaholic environment as early as enrolling after school programs since kindergarten.
A derivative of this pressure and involutionary competition is that parents are urging their children to study abroad. According to a 2018 report from the National Bureau of Statistics of China, as of 2017, over 608,400 Chinese students study abroad annually. The downstream effects of the One-Child Policy alongside a developing middle class resulting from economic growth (Li, 2010; Waters, 2006; Yeung, 2013) has resulted in a dynamic where Chinese parents channel their resources towards their single child. Sending their children abroad for university education provides them an opportunity for social mobility and success (Li, 2010; Tsong & Liu, 2009; Tu, 2016; Zhou, 1998). Studying abroad reflects the nature of competition from involution. These parents often have high expectations of their children who study abroad. The expectations in part are a result of the involutionary environment and the sacrifice and expense from international education. Some parents evaluate the studying abroad experience as an investment, so that they expect a high return on investment (ROI), such as pursuing high-income jobs afterward. The high expectation may put additional pressure on their children’s shoulders who study worldwide.
Most studies that examine the cause of international students’ stress mainly focus on acculturative stressors and challenges to college adjustment, such as language barriers, academic performance, and loneliness as they relate to student’s pressure and related-mental issues (Williams et al., 2018). However, parents’ high expectations may also be related to students’ pressure and mental health as well. For instance, the high expectations from parents may pressure students to perform well academically or increase stress about their career pathway. Chinese international students as a community not only compete with the domestic students in the United States for career opportunities, but also compete with the domestic students in China. Neijuan (Involution) provides a meaningless and negative competitive environment. The highly competitive environment may become a tremendous pressure and cause anxiety. Another serious issue is that international students are mostly unaware of how their parents’ expectations are correlated with their pressures and mental health status. It may influence them not to seek help from a peer or the university center.
Recommended References (you can check if it’s hard to find relevant resources):
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Delta,1350-1988. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press
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Methodos Series (Methodological Prospects in the Social Sciences), vol 6. Springer,
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Tsong, Y., & Liu, Y. (2009). Parachute kids and astronaut families. Asian American Psychology:
Current Perspectives, 365-379.
Tu, M. (2016). Chinese one-child families in the age of migration: middle-class transnational
mobility, ageing parents, and the changing role of filial piety. The Journal of Chinese Sociology, 3(1), 15. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40711-016-0036-z
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Consider your journey throughout this course and recommend 5 tips for graduate writing that you would share with others. Think about all your coursework. What did you learn? What would you do differently? What was most helpful to you?
You are interviewing for a Human Services Generalist Position with a human services organization that serves a community near you. They provide educational and employment resources to job-seeking, low-income families and individuals.
As part of the interview process, the hiring manager has asked you to prepare a visually appealing PowerPoint slideshow introducing ways to coordinate various systems within a client’s life that are supportive and encourage them to thrive. Your PowerPoint slideshow will need to:
Have a title slide that includes the name of your community.
Contain 4-6 content slides.
Address the following:
What personality/human behaviors need to be addressed with regard to helping someone find a job and/or seek education?
How can a family system support a client who is seeking a job or additional education? When might a family system work against an individual with these needs?
What macro systems/social forces need to be considered?
Suggest 2 national and 2 local community resources to help individuals from low-income families who are seeking employment or additional education.
Use proper spelling/grammar.
Cite at least 3 academic references and present the sources in APA format on a References slide.
When developing a presentation, it’s important to be mindful of how you layout your content. The slides should present key points, arranged in a logical manner, without extraneous information contributing to a cluttered look. Using the Speaker Notes feature in PowerPoint is a great way to include relevant details to be shared during your presentation without overloading the slides.
This week, you will focus on one of the models you studied during this course. Your task in your Signature Assignment is to choose one of the classic MFT models that you learned about in this course and demonstrate a thorough knowledge of the model, including how the model approaches treatment planning. To do this, you are expected to describe how the model is based in systems theory, identify the theorist(s) who created the model, the role of the therapist, key assumptions, interventions, goals, course (length) of treatment, and limitations. Here is a general layout of what should be covered in this
I. Introduce the (overview of what you will address in the , which is to describe your chosen model).
II. Describe your chosen therapy model.
Be sure to thoroughly articulate the primary theorist(s) of your selected Classic Model, including a specific illustration of why this model can be considered among approaches based on systems-based theories.
Describe the role of the therapist, key assumptions, interventions, goals, and course (length) of treatment using information from multiple sources and in-text citations. This is one of the most important sections of your , so focus your energy here. This section may include some information from the articles you located in Week 10.
Offer a critique of your chosen model. Discuss any possible limitations from this model, how cultural competency and diversity is addressed in the model, and any shortcomings of the model based on the research articles you located in Week 10.
III. Develop a treatment plan to treat the family.
Create a brief case example. You can base your family system on a movie that you have seen, a family you know, your own family, or your imagination. Describe the family system, including important information about their context (this will include aspects of their culture, belief systems, etc.) and presenting problem(s). This section will be written up in a paragraph (around 400 words).
Present a brief general treatment plan that uses goals, tasks, and interventions that are theoretically consistent with the model you chose. Review the treatment plan materials from earlier in the course and format the treatment plan as you would during therapy (with appropriate labels/numbers for goals, etc.) rather than just writing in paragraph format.
IV. Conclusion- Summarize the main points of your.
To complete this assignment successfully, you are required to demonstrate your knowledge of the selected model and treatment planning.
Length: 7-9 pages, not including title and references pages
Excellent discussion. For your topic, you may want to narrow it down a bit so you can develop a testable hypothesis. I think you are closest with reasons why some parents seek care- if you utilize a psychological construct to test. Since the parents are the ones in charge of getting their child help, I’d explore the mental health help seeking literature- what psychological variables have been linked to help seeking and how might this be connected to race/ethnicity.
As a case manager, what three principles will guide your work? Provide a rationale for your choices.
In response to your peers, discuss how your choices are the same and how they differ. See if you can come to an agreement on a final three including the rationale for choosing them. Be sure to use proper APA format and include feedback that demonstrates critical thinking. Remember to introduce new ideas and perspectives and do not just agree or disagree with your peer’s thoughts.
Discussion Topic: To Drink or Not to Drink
For a long time mothers have been warned about drinking any amount of alcohol while pregnant for fear of their child being born with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS). ”There is no known safe amount of alcohol use during pregnancy or while trying to get pregnant. There is also no safe time during pregnancy to drink. All types of alcohol are equally harmful, including all wines and beer. When a pregnant woman drinks alcohol, so does her baby.” (citation is missing). However, over the past few years reports are starting to come out stating that a couple of glasses of wine a week during pregnancy is okay. In fact, some doctors are saying this can be healthy for the baby because it relaxes the mother and lowers her level of stress.Before you start this week’s discussion find at least one article from the online library database about FAS and pregnancy. See the search method below. Then consider one of the online articles (links) below. Does it oppose or support your journal article? Then answer the following questions:
What are the symptoms and long-term prognoses for a child born with FAS?
What are the risks to the baby if the mother suffers from chronic stress throughout the pregnancy?
Based on all you have read do you feel that the benefits of lowered stress levels by the mother outweigh the minor risks of drinking a glass of wine on a regular basis?
Make sure to support your point of view with information from the source(s) you read.
Required: Peer-Reviewed Academic Journal article.
Week 1 library suggested article search method:
Sign in to the online library.
Databases–>ProQuest–>pregnancy and fetal alcohol syndrome (all subjects and indexing)
Limit to full-text peer-reviewed scholarly journals
A peer-reviewed article is required. Any of the following are possible resources for your discussion. How do they agree with or conflict with your peer-reviewed article?
Alcohol Use in Pregnancy
Note: Remember to cite a source in your primary post. Also, refer to the Psychology Discussion Requirements listed under Getting Started.
Arnett, J. (2009). The neglected 95%, a challenge to psychology’s philosophy of science. American Psychologist, 64(6), 571–574.
Abi-Hashem, N. (2015). Revisiting cultural awareness and cultural relevancy. The American Psychologist, 70(7), 660–661
Hwang, K. K. (2013). Linking science to culture: Challenge to psychologists. Social Epistemology, 27(1), 105–122. DOI: 10.1080/02691728.2012.760665
Benjamin, L., & Baker, D. (2012). The internationalization of psychology: A history. In D. Baker (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of the history of psychology: Global perspectives (pp. 1–30). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Credit Line: The Internationalization of Psychology: A History by Benjamin, L. and Baker, D. Copyright 2012. Oxford University Press. Reprinted by permission of Oxford University Press via the Copyright Clearance Center.
Ratner, C. (2008). Cultural psychology, cross-cultural psychology, indigenous psychology [electronic resource]. New York, NY: Nova Science Publishers, Inc.
Chapter 1: “Cultural Psychology” (pp. 1–11)
Guest, K. (2014). Culture. In K. Guest (Ed.), Cultural anthropology: A Toolkit for a Global Age (2nd ed., pp. 35–46). New York, NY: W.W. Norton.
Chapter 2: “Culture (Section on What is culture?)”Credit Line: Cultural Anthropology: A Toolkit for a Global Age, 2nd Edition by Guest, K. Copyright 2014 by W. W. Norton & Company. Reprinted by permission of W. W. Norton & Company via the Copyright Clearance Center.
Henrich, J., Heine, S. J., & Norenzayan, A. (2010). The weirdest people in the world? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 33, 61–83. doi:10.1017/S0140525X0999152X2055073310.1017/S0140525X0999152X2010-14802-001.
Van de Vijver, F. J. R. (2013). Contributions of internationalization to psychology: Toward a global and inclusive discipline. American Psychologist, 68(8), 761–770.
Discussion: Definitions of Culture
A veritable plethora of scholarship has been devoted to attempting to define culture. The concept is complex, yet most individuals have some idea about what the term means and includes. The idea of culture is so central to so much that makes us human, that it is well worth our time to explore and unpack its meaning in some depth. We may find that our ideas about culture share much in common with others’ ideas about culture, but we may also find some nuances or emphases in some definitions that are less apparent in other definitions.
For this Discussion, you will closely examine various definitions of culture and the importance it may have to the psychology community.
To prepare for this Discussion:
Review the Learning Resources for this week and consider various definitions of culture.
Based on your review of the Learning Resources, post your responses to the following questions.
What are some definitions of culture that researchers have utilized?
What is a definition of culture that resonates with you and why?
Why should psychologists be interested in understanding culture?
How can multi-cultural psychology positively influence policies and practices regarding immigration?
Identify and discuss three examples from the report of the APA Presidential Task Force on Immigration, Crossroads:
The Psychology of Immigration in the New Century at Immigration Report